State Information Service Your Gateway to Egypt

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a lot of grammatical jargon to understand their usage. You simply need your ears (okay, and maybe just a little grammatical jargon). In English, a and


Basic Information

20 August, 2019
07:52 PM
24 November, 2023
04:33 PM

Geographic Coordinates:

The Arab Republic of Egypt is located astronomically between latitudes 22° and 32° north of the equator, and between longitudes 24° and 37° east of the Greenwich line.

Geographical Borders:

The Arab Republic of Egypt is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean Sea with a coastline of 995 km in length, to the east by the Red Sea with a coastline of 1941 km in length, to the west by Libya with a length of 1115 km, and to the south by Sudan with a length of 1280 km.


The area of the Arab Republic of Egypt is about 1,002,000 km2, where the inhabited area is about 78,990 km2 representing 7.8% of the total area.


Egypt’s climate is influenced by many factors, the most important of which are the location, the landscape, the general pressure system and the law-pressure areas. They all contributed to dividing Egypt into distinguished climatic regions. Egypt lies in the dry arid region except for the northern region which enjoys a Mediterranean climate. It is hot and dry in summer and moderate in winter with little rain which increases on the coast.

Egypt has only two prominent seasons: a hot summer from May to October and a mild winter from November to April.



In winter, during January, temperatures may range from 9°-11°C at night to 20°-24°C during the day. While, in summer, during July and August, temperatures may range from 21°-25°C at night to 37°-42°C during the day.



Egypt is divided into four major parts:


1- The Nile Valley and Delta

The Nile Valley and Delta constitute less than 4% of the total area of the Arab Republic of Egypt, representing about 33,000 km2. It begins southern from north of Wadi Halfa to the Mediterranean Sea and it is divided into Upper Egypt (from Wadi Halfa to south Cairo) and Lower Egypt (from north Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea).

The Nile River extends from the Egyptian border in the south to the Mediterranean Sea in the north, with a length of approximately 1532 km. It splits north of Cairo into two main branches, the Damietta branch and the Rashid (or Rosetta) branch, which embrace the highly fertile agricultural lands of the Delta Triangle.


2- The Western Desert

The Western Desert of Egypt covers an area of about 680,650 km2 representing 68% of the total area of Egypt. It extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Egypt’s Southern borders. It is divided into:

  • The Northern section: it encompasses the coastal plane, the northern plateau and the Great Depressions area, which includes Siwa Oasis, Qattara Depression, Wadi El-Natrun, and Bahariya Oasis.
  • The Southern section: it includes the oases of Farafra, Kharga and Dakhla, and the Owainat oasis in the far south.

3- The Eastern Desert

The Eastern Desert covers an area of about 225,000 km2 representing 28% of the total area of Egypt. It extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea, Suez Gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt’s southern borders with Sudan in the south. The Eastern Desert is marked with the Eastern Mountains that extend along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to about 3000 feet above sea level. This desert is rich with natural resources including various ores such as gold, coal, and oil.


4- The Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula covers an area of about 61,000 km2 representing about 6% of the total area of Egypt. It is shaped like a triangle with its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its tip in the South at Ras Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal to the West. It is topographically divided into three main sections: 

  • The Southern section: it is an extremely tough terrain that consists of high granite mountains, where the height of Mount Catherine is about 2,637 meters above sea level, representing the highest mountain peak in Egypt.
  • The Central Section: It is the region of the central plateau or At-Teeh plateau. The valleys of this plateau descend gradually towards the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Northern section: It includes the area between the Mediterranean Sea in the north and At-Teeh plateau in the south. It is a plain area with abundant water resources resulting from rain water that flows from the southern heights to the central plateau.

Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt and is the largest city in the Arab world and Africa in terms of population; it is an ancient city with a prominent position among the capitals of the world.

Cairo was founded more than a thousand years ago, specifically on July 16, 969 AD by the Fatimid leader Jawhar Al-Sequilli, according to an order from the Fatimid Khalif Al-Mo'iz lideenellah. It was called "the city of the 1000 minarets.

It is the center of governance in Egypt, and its most prominent landmarks are the Cairo Tower, Salah El-Din Citadel, Al-Azhar Mosque, Sultan Hassan Mosque, Babylon Fortress, the Egyptian Museum, the Islamic Museum, the Coptic Museum, and others.

The Egyptian national anthem is a crystallization of its history. The anthem voices people's inspirations and beliefs. Egypt's current national anthem was based on an idea in the mind of one of Egypt's leaders. The first few lines of the anthem were obtained from a speech made by the great leader Mustafa Kamel in 1907. 

"O, my homeland, to you is my love and heart, 
To you are my life and my existence,
To you are my mind, tongue and my whole being,
You are everything in life, and there is no other life without you, ". 
Egypt's current anthem was written by the poet Younis al-Qadi and composed by the great artist Sayed Darwish.
The Egyptian National Anthem
My homeland, my homeland, my hallowed land,
Only to you, is my due hearty love at command,
My homeland, my homeland, my hallowed land,
Only to you is my due hearty love at command,
Mother of the great ancient land,
My sacred wish and holy demand,
All should love, awe and cherish thee,
Gracious is thy Nile to humanity,
No evil hand can harm or do you wrong,
So long as your free sons are strong,
My homeland, my homeland, my hallowed land,
Only to you, is my due hearty love at command.

The flag of the Arab Republic of Egypt consists of three equal horizontal rectangles, where the upper one is red, the middle is white, and the lower is black, while in the middle of the flag is the golden eagle emblem.

According to the population clock of the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, the population reached 102 million and 257 thousand and 218 people on 24/8/2021, with   a percentage of males reaching 51.47%, compared to 48.53% for females, where the number of males reached about 53 million and 15 thousand, while the number of females reached about 49 million and 107 thousand and 218 out of the total population of Egypt.


The official language of Egypt is Arabic. A few foreign languages are also spoken in Egypt, including English and French, which are used in some businesses and jobs, such as trade and tourism.


The Egyptian pound (EGP) is the basic unit of currency in Egypt. The pound is divided into 100 piasters issued by the Central Bank of Egypt. The issuance of the Egyptian pound was approved in 1834 AD, and it was minted and circulated in 1836 AD.

The Arab Republic of Egypt is divided into 7 regions, which include 27 governorates, 225 cities, 91 districts, 837 sheyakhat, 4727 villages and 27 new urban communities, according to an official report issued by the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.

The national day of Egypt is celebrated on July 23, which coincides with the annual celebration of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 that led to the declaration of the modern republic of Egypt, bringing an end to the era of monarchy.

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