Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27)

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a lot of grammatical jargon to understand their usage. You simply need your ears (okay, and maybe just a little grammatical jargon). In English, a and


Environmental Events

05 July, 2022
04:07 AM
01 September, 2022
02:40 PM

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, June 5-6, 1972, Stockholm

The 1972 United Nations Conference on the Environment in Stockholm was the first world conference to make the environment a major issue. The 113 participants adopted a series of principles for sound management of the environment including the Stockholm Declaration and Action Plan for the Human Environment and several resolutions.

The Stockholm Declaration, which contained 26 principles, placed environmental issues at the forefront of international concerns and marked the start of a dialogue between industrialized and developing countries on the link between economic growth, the pollution of the air, water, and oceans and the well-being of people around the world.

Principle 21 states that “States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.”

The Action Plan contained three main categories: a) Global Environmental Assessment Programme (watch plan); b) Environmental management activities; (c) International measures to support assessment and management activities carried out at the national and international levels. In addition, these categories were broken down into 109 recommendations.

One of the major results of the Stockholm conference was the creation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 1979

The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution was the first international legally binding instrument to deal with problems of air pollution on a broad regional basis. 34 governments, along with the European Commission, agreed at a conference in Geneva, Switzerland, on the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. It was signed in 1979 and entered into force in 1983.

Global Warming 1979

The World Climate Conference held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1979 under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), concluded that global warming due to the increase in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere requires urgent international action It also endorsed plans to establish a World Climate Programme (WCP).

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988. The IPCC was established to provide policymakers with regular scientific assessments on the current state of knowledge about climate change. Its initial task was to prepare a comprehensive review and recommendations with respect to the state of knowledge of the science of climate change; the social and economic impact of climate change, and potential response strategies and elements for inclusion in a possible future international convention on climate.

Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992

At the historic Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, the United Nations sought to help governments rethink economic development and find ways to stop polluting the planet and depleting its natural resources. 30,000 representatives of 178 countries, and one hundred and thirty heads of state and government gathered to protect the planet, its resources and climate, and to formulate a policy for global growth and poverty eradication while preserving the environment.

In this conference, 172 governments (108 represented by heads of state or government) adopted three main agreements to guide future approaches to development:

A - The first agreement: related to biodiversity and aims to protect living animal and plant species threatened with extinction.

B - The Paris Agreement: related to climate change (the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) and combating rising temperatures by limiting the emission of gases that cause heat to the atmosphere.

C- The Treaty on Forests and Green Spaces (Statement of Forest Principles): a set of principles to support the sustainable management of forests around the world.

Rio Declaration

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, often shortened to Rio Declaration, was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations "Conference on Environment and Development" (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit. The Rio Declaration consisted of 27 principles intended to guide countries in future sustainable development.

Principle 2 acknowledges that states have “sovereign right in exploiting their own resources” in accordance with their national policies. Nevertheless, they also have the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not damage the environment outside their jurisdiction.

Principle 6 dictates that developing countries, particularly the “least developed” and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given “special priority.” It indicates that the needs of all countries should be addressed through concerted international actions.

Principle 7 recognizes the need for states to cooperate in order to conserve, protect, and restore the earth’s ecosystem. At the same time, it also recognizes that while all countries are responsible for limiting damage to common global environmental ideas, the developed countries are disproportionately responsible for historical global environmental problems; however, they also have the greatest capacity to act.

Agenda 21

It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. Agenda 21 called on all countries to participate in the improvement, protection and better management of ecosystems and to take responsibility for the future with a participatory approach.

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