Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27)

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a

If indefinite articles are the proverbial thorn in your side, the good news is that you don't need a lot of grammatical jargon to understand their usage. You simply need your ears (okay, and maybe just a little grammatical jargon). In English, a and


International efforts to solve global warming

06 July, 2022
01:02 PM
01 September, 2022
02:25 PM

Since the early 1990s, the international community has sought to make more efforts in an attempt to find practical solutions to the problem of global warming. Global warming has become a source of concern for many countries and international organizations. These efforts have resulted in many international treaties and agreements, the most important of which are:

1- World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)

The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is a programme established in 1980 by the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council of Scientific Unions. WCRP gives benefit to climate science, especially with regard to the numerous simulations of various phenomena that occur in the oceans and atmosphere.

2- Montreal Protocol of 1987

Although this protocol was not originally intended to address changes in the climate, it was a preliminary and historical agreement on the issue of climate change. All countries in the international community have ratified it and thus this protocol succeeded in pushing all countries to ceasing the production of all substances that harm the ozone layer. During 2016, the states parties agreed to reduce their production of hydrofluorocarbons, which contribute significantly to climate change.

3- The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988. The IPCC prepares comprehensive Assessment Reports about the state of scientific, technical and socio-economic knowledge on climate change, its impacts and future risks, and options for reducing the rate at which climate change is taking place. It also produces Special Reports on topics agreed to by its member governments, as well as Methodology Reports that provide guidelines for the preparation of greenhouse gas inventories.

4- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992

It is an international treaty ratified by 197 countries. It is the first treaty on a global level that clearly and explicitly addresses the issue of climate change. This treaty also established a conference known as the Conference of the Parties to discuss the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

5- Rio Earth Summit 1992

At the beginning of the nineties of the last century, the international community tried to combat various forms of climate change. The Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. After the summit, the United Nations Convention on Climate Change was signed by 166 countries, all of which recognized the role of humanity in global warming.

6- Kyoto Protocol of 1997

It is a protocol that has been announced and adopted since 1997, but it did not enter into force until 2005. This protocol is the first treaty binding its parties. The Kyoto Protocol sets binding emission reduction to all countries at a rate of 5 per cent compared to 1990 levels.

7- EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), 2005

It is a system adopted by the European Union. It is the world's first major carbon market and remains the biggest one. Under this system, the companies responsible for emissions are given a certain percentage that they cannot exceed.

8- Copenhagen Climate Change Conference - December 2009

This conference was established within the framework of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in order to draw up a new agreement to replace the Kyoto Protocol. However, it did not achieve the task, as countries were unable to reach an agreement obligating everyone to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

9- Climate Change Conference, Cancún, Mexico & the Green Climate Fund, 2010

The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference that was held in Cancún, Mexico called for establishing the Green Climate Fund (GCF). The GCF aims to provide a grant of up to 100 billion to help developing countries to adopt various initiatives to combat climate change, as well as to prevent all operations aimed at deforestation.

10- Paris Agreement of 2015

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. Its goal is to limit global warming. With the Paris Agreement, countries established an enhanced transparency framework (ETF). The information gathered through the ETF will feed into the Global stocktake which will assess the collective progress towards the long-term climate goals.

11- European Green Deal of 2019

The overarching objective of the EU Green Deal is for the EU to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. After the deal was announced, China announced a similar pledge to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

12- Climate Action Summit 2019

With global emissions are reaching record levels and showing no sign of peaking, UN Secretary-General António Guterres called on all leaders, representatives of the private sector and members of civil society to come for the Climate Action Summit to provide the necessary support for the acceleration of action in preserving the climate.




Listen to the word paragraph