Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27)

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Causes of Climate Change

07 July, 2022
01:46 AM
01 September, 2022
02:38 PM

First: Natural causes

Natural factors such as: volcanic eruptions and solar radiation were among the main reasons for changing the Earth's climate before the existence of the so-called industrial revolution.

Solar radiation

Changes in solar activity contribute to the difference in solar radiation over a period of time ranging from several seconds to decades, with a value of (0.1 ° C) on the global temperature of the Earth, because the Earth’s climate depends on the Earth’s climate depends on the balance between the amount of solar radiation received by Earth and the amount of thermal radiation Earth returns to space, since a small change can contribute to affecting the climate. Therefore, when greenhouse gases block (40%) of the heat radiation emitted by the Earth, this leads to an imbalance between solar radiation and thermal radiation, which leads to a rise in temperature and thus causes melting ice caps, rising sea levels, and changing the warming and cooling trend.

Volcanic eruptions

Volcanic eruptions lead to climate change, as they cool the atmosphere for a period of 2-3 years, by increasing the level of aerosols (small particles) in the stratosphere, which reflect or absorb sunlight and thus can lead to a rise Temperatures due to carbon, or cooling caused by sulfur oxide in volcanic ash. One of the effects of volcanic eruptions on climate change is temporary cooling, which results from volcanic ash or dust blocking sunlight, shading and cooling the area under the troposphere.

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a fluctuation of the ocean and atmosphere system in the tropical area of the Pacific Ocean that affects global weather. It refers to the irregular difference between cooling and warming, which is one of the natural variations.

Such variations can continue for a period of 2-7 years in the Pacific Ocean and as a result, El Niño causes regional and global changes in precipitation patterns and average temperature.

Milankovitch cycles

The Milankovitch cycles affect the Earth's climate for long-term periods, up to (10000-100,000) years, as the changes caused by the Milankovitch cycles contributed to the expansion of glaciers and ice sheets and the retreat of others as a result of the change in solar radiation in latitudes in some seasons.

Among the effects of Milankovitch cycles on climate change is the effect on summer solar radiation curves in high northern latitudes.

Second: Human causes

Human activities

Many human activities, such as: cutting down trees, burning forests, and using fertilizers, especially at the beginning of the industrial revolution, caused an imbalance in the Earth's climate, which contributed to a high concentration of nitrogen oxide and carbon gas.

Many human activities, such as: cutting down trees, burning forests, and using fertilizers, especially at the beginning of the industrial revolution, caused an imbalance in the Earth's climate, which contributed to a high concentration of nitrogen oxide and carbon gas.

Burning fossil fuels

Burning fossil fuels increases the percentage of carbon in the atmosphere, as Carbon emissions from burning coal represents (3/4) of carbon in the world, which leads to climate change, as a result of heat sequestration in the atmosphere, while power plants are responsible for releasing about (42%) of mercury, and about (2/3) of sulfur gas that causes acid rain.

The effects of burning fossil fuels on climate change are as follows:

1 - High carbon gas

2 - Air pollution

3- Water pollution

4 - Nitrogen oxide

5 - Nitrous oxide

Burning forests and cutting down trees

Burning forests and cutting down trees contributes to the trapping of atmospheric heat due to the presence of carbon gas that is released from trees and forests into the atmosphere, which causes the melting of ice, so burning forests and cutting trees will lead to a higher level of carbon concentration in the atmosphere instead of absorbing it after it was preserved for many years in the vegetation.

Agricultural fertilizers use

Agricultural fertilizers cause global warming, as they contribute to about 10% of global greenhouse gases.

Cement production

Cement production is one of the main human activities that cause climate change, as it produces (5%) of the total carbon dioxide through the manufacture of cement at a high temperature after crushing limestone and mixing it with sand and clay.

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